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Former Executives of Outcome Health Convicted in $1B Corporate Fraud Scheme

A federal jury convicted three former executives of Outcome Health, a Chicago-based health technology start-up company, for their roles in a fraud scheme that targeted the company’s clients, lenders, and investors and involved approximately $1 billion in fraudulently obtained funds.

The individuals convicted by jury verdict today were:

  • Rishi Shah, 37, the co-founder and former CEO of Outcome Health (Outcome), which was founded in 2006 and known as Context Media prior to January 2017;
  • Shradha Agarwal, 37, the former president of Outcome, who was described as a co-founder; and
  • Brad Purdy, 33, the former chief operating officer and chief financial officer.

Outcome installed television screens and tablets in doctors’ offices around the United States and then sold advertising space on those devices to clients, most of whom were pharmaceutical companies. According to evidence presented at trial, Shah, Agarwal, and Purdy sold advertising inventory the company did not have to Outcome’s clients, then under-delivered on its advertising campaigns. Despite these under-deliveries, the company still invoiced its clients as if it had delivered in full. Shah, Agarwal, and Purdy lied or caused others to lie to conceal the under-deliveries from clients and make it appear as if the company was delivering advertising content to the number of screens in the clients’ contracts. Purdy and others at Outcome also inflated metrics that purported to show how frequently patients engaged with Outcome’s tablets installed in doctors’ offices. According to the trial evidence, the scheme targeting Outcome’s clients began in 2011, lasted until 2017, and resulted in at least $45 million of overbilled advertising services.

Shah, Agarwal, and Purdy were also convicted of defrauding Outcome’s lenders and investors. The under-delivery to Outcome’s advertising clients resulted in a material overstatement of Outcome’s revenue for the years 2015 and 2016. The company’s outside auditor signed off on the 2015 and 2016 revenue numbers because Purdy caused others to fabricate data to conceal the under-deliveries from the auditor. Shah, Agarwal, and Purdy then used the inflated revenue figures in Outcome’s 2015 and 2016 audited financial statements to raise $110 million in debt financing in April 2016, $375 million in debt financing in December 2016, and $487.5 million in equity financing in early 2017.

Shah, Agarwal, and Purdy lied to investors and lenders to conceal their ongoing under-delivery of advertising campaigns for clients. Shah and Purdy also misrepresented to investors the efficacy of Outcome’s advertising campaigns by concealing the fact that it had failed to meet return-on-investment commitments to clients.  

The $110 million debt financing resulted in a $30.2 million dividend to Shah and a $7.5 million dividend to Agarwal; the $487.5 million in equity financing resulted in a $225 million dividend to Shah and Agarwal.

Three other former employees of Outcome pleaded guilty prior to trial. Ashik Desai, the former chief growth officer pleaded guilty to one count of wire fraud; and Kathryn Choi, a former senior analyst, and Oliver Han, a former analyst, both pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit wire fraud. Desai, Choi, and Han will be sentenced at a date to be determined.

Shah was convicted of five counts of mail fraud, 10 counts of wire fraud, two counts of bank fraud, and two counts of money laundering. Agarwal was convicted of five counts of mail fraud, eight counts of wire fraud, and two counts of bank fraud. Purdy was convicted on five counts of mail fraud, five counts of wire fraud, two counts of bank fraud, and one count of false statements to a financial institution. The defendants face a maximum penalty of 30 years in prison for each count of bank fraud and 20 years in prison for each count of wire fraud and mail fraud. Purdy faces a maximum penalty of 30 years in prison for the count of false statements to a financial institution. Shah faces a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison for each count of money laundering. A sentencing hearing will be scheduled at a date to be determined. A federal district court judge will determine any sentence after considering the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines and other statutory factors.

Assistant Attorney General Kenneth A. Polite, Jr. of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division, Acting U.S. Attorney Morris Pasqual for the Northern District of Illinois, Assistant Inspector General for Investigations Shimon Richmond of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-Office of Inspector General (FDIC-OIG), and Robert W. Wheeler, Jr., Special Agent-in-Charge of the Chicago Field Office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Assistant Chiefs William E. Johnston and Kyle C. Hankey of the Criminal Division’s Fraud Section and Assistant U.S. Attorneys Matthew F. Madden and Saurish Appleby-Bhattacharjee for the Northern District of Illinois are prosecuting the case.

“The defendants’ vast scheme damaged the clients, investors, and lenders who supported their business. Although they sought to hide the fraud by silencing whistleblowers and duping auditors, the jury today rightly held the defendants accountable for the losses they caused, which total hundreds of millions of dollars,” said Acting U.S. Attorney Pasqual. “Today’s verdicts demonstrate that this Office and its law enforcement partners will work tirelessly and dedicate the resources necessary to deliver justice for the victims of complex fraud schemes.”

“The scope of this fraud scheme is staggering, with almost $1 billion in victim losses. Today’s conviction is a fitting reminder that deceptive and illegal business practices have very real consequences" said Special Agent-in-Charge Wheeler.

"Today's conviction holds these defendants accountable for deceiving Outcome Health's clients, and fraudulently obtaining approximately $1 billion from its lenders and investors," said Assistant Inspector General Richmond. "The FDIC-OIG remains committed to working with our law enforcement partners to investigate and bring to justice those who harm lenders, investors, and clients by committing such fraudulent acts."  

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